Saturday, December 7, 2019
What are at least two legal issues associated with clinical psychology? Provide an example of a situation that could be legal but unethical. Explain your response. Two legal issues associated with clinical psychology include maintaining records and avoid inappropriate dual relationships. An example of a situation that could be legal but unethical would be for a clinical psychologist to engage in a personal or romantic relationship with a former or current patient. 2. What are at least two ethical issues associated with clinical psychology? Provide an example of a situation that could be ethical but illegal. Explain your response. An example of an ethical issue associated with clinical psychology is insurance/fee misbehavior. 3. Define professional boundaries, boundary crossings, and boundary violations. What effects do boundaries have on the therapeutic relationship? Professional boundaries are specific outlines or guidelines between a professional, such as a psychologist who assesses and treats patients and/or clients, or formal clients on a professional level only (The Australian Psychological Society, 2004). We will write a custom essay sample on The Practice of Clinical Psychology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page . What are at least two cultural limitations associated with assessment and treatment? In your response, discuss the use or misuse of assessment instruments, therapy techniques, research results, or any other facet of clinical practice that could have potentially harmful, culture-specific implications. Two cultural limitations associated with assessment and treatment barriers between communication concerning the psychologist and the client, and differences in backgrounds, race, or religion.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Steel War Essay Domestic steel firms and the United Steelworkers of America (the steelworkers union) have called this a battle for the future of American steel. It Is a battle that pits many competing domestic and foreign groups against one another: domestic versus foreign steel firms; U. S. Versus foreign governments; as well as steel- producing versus steel-consuming domestic firms. Recent Events In the U. S. Steel Market Exalt 1 and Exhibit 2 show domestic shipments and foreign Imports of steel In the U. S. Market, while Exhibit 3 shows U. S. Employment In the steel Industry. Exhibit 1 totes that steel imports spiked in mid-1998 as a result of worldwide overcapacity during the Asian economic crisis. Exhibits 2 and 3 indicate that steel employment has been falling steadily since the early 1 sass; however, domestic steel shipments have been slowly trending upward. This dichotomy is explained by improving productivity in the Industry. Both domestic shipments and Imports fell In 2001 as a result of sluggish domestic demand during the 2001 recession; however, Imports as a share of total U. S. Apparent supply fell from 22. 3 percent in 2000 to 20. 2 percent in 2001. In mineral, the import share of new supply has remained fairly stable throughout the asses, and actually fell in 2001 relative to recent trend. Thus, although steel production has been hurt by the fall in domestic demand, there has been no recent surge in Imports. U. S. Steel producers point to declines in employment In steel- producing Industries as the reason for the need for Import protection. Recent percent of American steel-producing capacity have filed 02004 by the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University. This case was prepared by Professors Anvil AY-Ninjas and Sandmen Baling and research assistant Chris Forman 02. We will write a custom essay sample on Steel War specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Steel War specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Steel War specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 800-545-7685 (or 617-783-7600 outside the United States or Canada) or e-mail [emailprotected] Harvard. Du. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means?electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise?without the permission of the Kellogg School of Management. These behemoths use the rotational combination of blast furnaces, coke ovens, and oxygen furnaces to produce steel from iron ore, coal, and limestone. These firms are famous for large, bureaucratic organizations and highly unionized workforces. Exhibit 4 shows that the cost per ton of these companies remains much higher than their competitors costs. Moreover, the integrated producers are burdened with ruinous legacy costs?the future healthcare and pension benefits steel companies have promised their workforces. Their capacity has fallen to about 60 million tons of capacity from 145 million tons 20 years ago. In contrast, the recent performance of the smaller, younger U. S. Mint-mills has been better. These mint-mills have grown rapidly since they were first introduced in the mid-asses, and in 1999 accounted for roughly 45 percent of U. S. Carbon-steel capacity. These plants are much more efficient than those of the integrated producers; production costs are a fraction of those of the integrated firms. Their workforce is also much smaller than that of the integrated mills?they employ only about 30,000 workers, compared to the roughly 105,000 employed by the integrated producers. Moreover, because these firms produce new tell from used steel, they are relatively insulated from gyrations in the price of steel. Drops in the steel prices impact revenues, but lower steel costs as well. Section 201 Filing injured or threatened with serious injury by increased imports may petition the TIC for import relief. The TIC determines whether the product in question is being imported in sufficient quantities to be a substantial cause of serious injury to the domestic industry. If the commission agrees that the domestic industry is threatened by imports, it makes a recommendation to the president that would permit remedy of he injury and help aid industry adjustment to the import competition. Such recommendations may involve, for example, an increase in duties, imposition of a quota, imposition of a tariff-rate quota, or other trade adjustment assistance. Section 201 does not require the finding of unfair trade practices against foreign firms. However, the commission does require a high standard to find in favor of domestic industry, because it requires that the injury be serious and also that imports be a substantial cause of the serious injury. 2 While it is rare for the JUST to initiate a Section 201 investigation, it is not unprecedented. The JUST made prior requests against apple Juice imports in 1985, stainless steel in 1982, and mushrooms in 1976. Section 201 investigations are not country-specific, and so affect all importers. The commissions findings and remedy recommendations must be forwarded to the president within 180 days of receipt of the request from the JUST. 2 Robert Crandall, Whistling Past Big Steels Graveyard, opinion piece, Wall Street Journal, March 19, 1999. The commission defines substantial cause to mean important and not less than any other cause. KELLOGG SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT Arguments Against Import Controls Perhaps the simplest argument against protecting the steel industry is that such policies undermine the global free trade system that the United States has tried to build. Europe is furious over the potential implications of a Section 201 finding. More than a third of its $4 billion in steel exports is at risk. Moreover, protection for U. S. Markets would undoubtedly cause Rupees market to be flooded with diverted steel. In addition to the Europeans, the Brazilian, Russians, Japanese, and many others have lined up to oppose the policy. Many worry that the imposition of steel tariffs November 2001) round of global trade talks at risk. Domestic steel-consuming producers are also furious over the prospect of steel tariffs. Firms such as Emerson Electric, Caterpillar Inc. , and Illinois Tool Works Inc. Have strongly opposed a Section 201 remedy. For firms such as Caterpillar, the concerns are twofold. Higher steel prices raise the cost of producing heavy equipment. Moreover, retaliatory tariff strikes from foreign governments may be directed at Caterpillar equipment. Steel importers and dealers would also be hurt by the imposition of tariffs or quotas. Domestic producers have sponsored a number of studies illustrating the potential costs of steel tariffs. One study that has received notable attention was sponsored by the Consuming Industries Trade Action Coalition (ACTA). The ACTA study estimates that steel tariffs would lead to a loss of between 36,200 to 74,200 U. S. Jobs (depending on tariff size), or eight Jobs for every one steel Job protected. 3 Moreover, the ACTA study indicates steel tariffs would do little to save the domestic industry, calculating domestic steel prices would rise Just 0. 2 to 0. 4 percent while shipments rise 2. 9 to 5. 9 recent. The study estimates that proposed tariff remedies would decrease GAP by $0. Billion to $1. 4 billion per year. Other studies criticize steel industry complaints about foreign subsidies. A report by the American Institute for International Steel (ASSS), a domestic trade group of international importers and exporters of steel, lists the subsidies enjoyed by domestic steel producers. One recent example of how American steel is subsidized comes from the Emergency Steel and Oil and Gas G uaranteed Loan Program Act of 1999, which establishes a program of loan guarantees for steel companies that is estimated to cost up to $1 billion. The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 provided funding for research and development to increase the competitiveness of steel, at an estimated cost of $155. 4 million. Moreover, many U. S. States provide steel companies with generous incentives to operate in-state. For example, a 1994 Alabama incentive package to Trick Steel Co. Was estimated to cost state taxpayers between $85 million and $112 million. 4 Many economists argue that the biggest danger to domestic integrated steel producers is not foreign steel, but rather U. S. Into-mill producers. As Exhibit 4 shows, U. S. Mint-mill producers are much more efficient than their integrated cousins. Brooking Institute economist Robert Crandall notes that inflation-adjusted steel prices have fallen 40 percent over the last 20 years. He attributes much of this dramatic decline not to foreign steel, but rather to falling input prices and competition from mini-mills. 5 The dramatic declines in steel employment may also be the result 3 Joseph FranÃ §ois and Laura Bagman, Estimated Effects of Proposed Import Relief Remedies for Steel, study prepared for the Consuming Industries Trade Action Coalition by Trade Partnership Worldwide, LLC, 2001. 4 Robert Matthews, U. S. Steel Industry Itself Gets Billions in Public Subsidies, Study Concludes, Wall Street Journal, November 29, 1999. 5 Robert Crandall, Whistling Past Big Steels Graveyard, The Wall Street Journal, March 3 of mint-mill competition rather than as a result of import competition. For example, when steel quotas were in place from 1984 to 1992, imports as a percentage of new supply fell from 26. 2 percent in 1984 to 17. 2 percent in 1992, while employment in the steel industry over the same period fell by 78,300. Arguments in Favor of Import Controls One common argument for import controls is that foreign governments unfairly subsidize their steel producers, effectively lowering their costs of production. U. S. Steel producers argue that this puts American steel at a competitive disadvantage in the marketplace. The American Iron and Steel Institute (ASSAI) argues that more than $100 billion in subsidies had been gi ven to foreign steel makers between 1980 and 1992. The ASSAI maintains that the European Union (ELI) has approved or acknowledged more than $11 billion in governmental assistance to European producers. Pro-steel economists argue that more than 325,000 U. S. Jobs are at risk if the steel industry is not protected. 7 Experts for the steel industry also dispute the credibility of studies that estimate the impact of higher steel prices on downstream industry producers. Noted MIT economist Jerry Houseman has argued that the ACTA study does not reliably estimate the effects of steel tariffs on the U. S. Economy, arguing that a steel price increase of 0. 2 to 0. 4 percent of the sort assumed in the ACTA study would have little effect on the costs of steel-consuming industries. He argues that if, for example, steels share of input costs is 20 percent and steel prices rise by 0. Percent, then (assuming no change in input mix) costs for the steel-consuming firm would increase by 0. 06 percent. Professor Houseman notes, This minor price increase would have almost no effect on demand, especially since demand price elasticity for most goods that use steel are not particularly high. In sum, Professor Houseman notes that a steel price increase of 0. 2 percent to 0. 4 percent would have almost no effect on U. S. Jobs or economic output. 8 The ASSAI goes further, saying, The ACTA and Crandall studies are totally lacking in credibility. They should not be taken seriously by anyone. 9 Ironically, many in the Bush administration argue that protecting American steel will benefit free trade. This is primarily for political reasons. One motive for supporting requires that Congress vote on a trade package without making amendments, allowing the administration to put a trade deal before Congress without it being picked apart line by line. Fast-track authority is considered essential for the administration to negotiate trade deals at the Doth round of international trade talks. The ASSAI argues that loss of the steel industry would have many other negative effects on the U. S. Economy. It contends that failure of the U. S. Steel industry would have a direct impact on Americas national security. It further argues that if the United States were to lose its domestic steel industry, downstream steel-using industries would be harmed, held hostage to the policies and practices of foreign producers who are practiced in the art of cartel behavior. The ASSAI Brink Lindsey, Daniel Griswold, and Aaron Lukas, The Steel Crisis and the Costs of Protectionism, Coat Institute Trade briefing paper, April 16, 1999. 7 Robert Blacker, Jobs at Risk: The Necessity of Effective Relief for the American Steel Industry, position paper, American University, Washington, D. C. 8 Jerry Houseman, Critique of ACTA Study, position paper, January 31, 2 002. 9 The Latest ACTA and Crandall Studies on the Costs and Benefits of Steel Trade Relief: Flawed Models, Biased Conclusions? Again! position paper, American Iron and Steel Institute, January 24, 2002. 4 goes on to say that loss of domestic steel would cause Americas technological leadership to suffer, damage the world environment, and hurt worldwide welfare. Potential Remedies There are several potential remedies the TIC could recommend to protect U. S. Steel. Tariffs and tariff rate quotas (TRY) would protect the steel industry by imposing duties on imported products. Tariffs are simply taxes, reducing imports indirectly by increasing a products price. You have heard from reliable sources that if the TIC commissioners decide to take action, they are considering tariffs in the range of 20 to 40 percent. Trust are tariffs that use a nonlinear taxation scheme to induce imports to remain below a certain level. Under a TRY, imports below some preset level enter the country at a lower tariff level while imports above the target threshold enter at a Quotas reduce imports by setting hard limits on the quantity of imported steel that can enter the country. One proposal has been to limit monthly steel imports from all nations to 1997 levels. These quotas would remain in effect for a period of three years. The imposition of quotas such as these would probably constitute a violation of the U. S. International trading commitments to the World Trade Organization (WTFO). Another possibility would be to negotiate voluntary export restraints, or Ever, with other countries. Under this approach, U. S. Negotiators attempt to persuade foreign overspent to reduce exports to the United States. Of course, EVER are generally not voluntary and also constitute another violation of WTFO rules. As part of its investigation, the TIC has called for opinions on remedy options from domestic and foreign producers. Exhibit 5 provides a summary of some of the recommendations for flat steel products. Discussion Questions What is your assessment of what the TIC should do? What factors should the TIC consider when making its decision? Do you believe that remedies are called for? If so, what sort of remedies would you impose: tariffs, quotas, or some other mechanism? To help you with your analysis, you are invited to work through the problems below. 1 . U. S. Anti-dumping law allows domestic producers to petition against imports sold below fair market value. Fair value is defined as the price in the home market or the cost of production plus some reasonable profit. The critical question is: what does this cost include? To help understand this point, consider the following simple costs for steel. The demand in Country I, when I run supply is: Is = O S = 60 for Pi 20 = 100 Pi and the short- That is, minimum PVC is 20 for all producers in each country, and capacity is fixed at 0. Assume that 40 is the minimum price necessary for firms to cover all fixed and variable costs. A. What is the competitive equilibrium in each market, assuming no trade is possible? B. Now suppose that demand in Country 1 falls to ODL = 70- Pl . Assuming no trade, what is the short and long run equilibrium in Country 1? C. What would the result be if demand falls as in (b), but trade was now permitted between the two countries? What is the new world market price, quantity sold, and imports and exports in each country? 2. Exhibit 6 and Exhibit 7 include data on quantity, revenue, demand, and supply elasticity for certain flat steel products. The TIC has recommended a tariff that would increase the average domestic price of plate steel by $5 per ton on plate steel, from $401. 36 to $406. 36 per ton. The data in Exhibit 7 show that 6,023,568 tons were shipped by domestic producers at the world price, while 6,974,335 tons were consumed. Use the data in Exhibits 6 and 7 to calculate the change in consumer and producer surplus on plate steel as a result of this policy. For simplicity sake, assume that domestic and foreign steel are perfect substitutes, and that all purchases of steel represent final demand. You may further assume that the demand and supply curves are linear. For demand and supply elasticity, use the midpoint of the ranges provided in Exhibit 6. 3. MIT economist Jerry Houseman said, This minor price increase [of 0. 2 percent to 0. 4 percent] would have almost no effect on demand, especially since demand price elasticity for most goods that use steel are not particularly high. This question will show why an inelastic demand curve implies that changes in steel prices have little impact on the quantity demanded in steel- consuming industries. Consider a supply curve Q = P and the demand curve Q = 100 6 a. What are the domestic price, supply, and demand assuming a closed market under which steel trade is not allowed? B. Now assume the world price is 30. What is the new domestic supply and demand at this price? What are total imports? What is the elasticity of demand at the world price? C. Suppose the U. S. Government imposes a tariff of 33. 33 percent on foreign imports. What are the domestic price, supply, and demand at the new price? What are total imports under this policy? How much does demand change under this policy and what is the dead weight loss? D. Now suppose demand is equal to Q = 75 P/6. Calculate domestic demand under he free trade and tariff policies. What is the elasticity of demand at the world price? How does the change in demand from a free trade to tariff environment compare to that in part (c)? What is the deadweight loss as a result of this policy, and how does it compare to part (c)? Can you explain the reason for the difference in answers in parts (c) and (d)? 4. A common argument made by U. S. Steel companies is that U. S. Steel producers are as efficient as foreign firms; however, foreign subsidies are creating an unfair playing field in the steel market. This question illustrates the effects that subsidies an have on the steel market, and how they can drive efficient producers out of the market over the long run. Again, consider two countries that face symmetrical demands and costs for steel. The demand in Country I, when I = 1,2, is Did = 1000 pip. All firms in both countries use identical production technologies; firms in both markets have cost functions C(Q) = 400 + Q, C(O) = 400, with MAC = Q. A. Find the long-run equilibrium in both markets under free trade. What are the long- run price, total quantity, and equilibrium number of firms in both markets? B. Now suppose Country 2 decides to subsidize its steel industry. It initiates a policy of paying domestic steel producers 10 for each unit produced, effectively lowering the marginal cost of production by 10. Assuming no world trade, what is the equilibrium price and quantity in each market? Excluding the effects of subsidies, what is the highest marginal cost of production found among firms in Country 1 and Country 2? C. If Country 2 follows the subsidy policy described in (b), what is the short-run equilibrium in the world market if free trade is permitted? Excluding the effects of subsidies, what is the highest marginal cost of production for firms in Country 2?
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
New Years resolutions for career success in 2018 A new year is often looked at as an opportunity for making positive changes, and weÃ¢â¬â¢re all familiar with the tradition of making New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s resolutions- as we end each year and look forward to the next, we take stock of the things we want to improve upon or change in our lives. Those among us who are diligent enough to take things one step further set a plan for achieving our resolutions, and some among us actually follow through by putting in the time and effort to achieve our stated goals. And for the most dedicated and focused among us, sometimes a positive change and lasting result is achieved. Our New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s resolutions can vary across an endless array of categories- from finding love, making new friends, and moving to a new city to acquiring a new hobby or skill set. Among the most popular resolutions that people make involve job- and career-related goals. However, while making a New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s resolution for career change and success can be the beginnin g of a wonderful new chapter in our lives, itÃ¢â¬â¢s really just the first step.Positive intent can be a powerful motivating force for change and growth in our lives, but the truth is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s often not enough- this is the reason why the majority of us fail to completely commit and follow through on the resolutions we make each year. The truth is, most resolutions flounder in the starting gate without any real forward progress ever being made, and many others are met with a feeble, half-hearted effort that eventually goes nowhere.) We need more than a positive attitude and hope- we need a plan.According to a recent article on The Muse, Ã¢â¬Å"Those who took meaningful steps to achieve their resolutions- setting step-by-step goals or telling their friends and family, for example- were far more likely to achieve their desires than those who made no specific commitmentsÃ¢â¬ ¦ So if you really want to see results this year, itÃ¢â¬â¢s critical that you set your goals with si ncerity, and set yourself up for success.Ã¢â¬ What are your New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s resolutions for career success in 2018? More importantly, do you have a plan for achieving them? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a closer look at some of the most popular career-related resolutions, and some advice for taking them past the Ã¢â¬Å"good ideaÃ¢â¬ stage and closer to the Ã¢â¬Å"goal achievedÃ¢â¬ category.I want a promotion.Who among us doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want a loftier position with a more impressive sounding title and a higher salary, regardless of where we currently work? The truth is, this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always an immediately attainable reality for everyone- maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢re just getting started at your current job and itÃ¢â¬â¢s too soon to start thinking about a promotion, or maybe the place you work at is small and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no clear upward trajectory. Whatever the reason, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re seeking a promotion and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no obvious path for growth for you in your current job, perhaps this means you should make a more drastic change as part of your New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s resolution planning.However, if there are opportunities for growth on the horizon for you, then take a step back and a deep breath and think carefully before blindly charging into your bossÃ¢â¬â¢s office and demanding a promotion.Take stock of your current situation- have you spent the last year working hard to convince your boss that you are ready, willing, and able to take the next step to a new job with greater responsibility? Has your boss been giving you positive feedback all year about how valuable you are to the company and how everyone is impressed with the job youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been doing? If so, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already been working hard to achieve your goal of getting a promotion- the next step is choosing the right time, place, and method for asking for one. This is highly subjective and based on your individual job situation. Do you have annual review meetings with your boss to discuss s uch issues? If so, then this would be the ideal time to broach this subject. Or perhaps your boss is open to feedback and discussions whenever they arise. If so, choose a day when your boss seems to be in a good mood and go for it!Maybe you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been getting great signals that your boss would be terribly receptive to the idea of you asking for a promotion. If this sounds more like your reality, then it may be wise to concoct a more long-term plan. Spend the next several months- maybe even the entire next year- anticipating your bossÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, doing your job to the absolute best of your ability, and sowing the seeds for popping the big Ã¢â¬Å"promotion questionÃ¢â¬ next year. Like we said earlier, sometimes you need a plan, and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing quite as defeating or draining as asking for a promotion before youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready and meeting rejection.I want a new job.Okay so maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢ve reached as high and as far as you can possibly go in your current j ob, faced every challenge, conquered every obstacle, and mastered every skill that you could possible acquire. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s timeÃ¢â¬âyouÃ¢â¬â¢re ready for a change. It happens, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a perfectly natural and healthy part of any career path. In fact, job changes are often great opportunities to climb to the next rung on your career ladder. However you shouldÃ consider some advance planning before you race out of your current job screaming, Ã¢â¬Å"I quit!Ã¢â¬ Get a feel for the current job market in your field and area. Are there a wealth of opportunities available, or is it slim pickings? Take a subtle poll of the folks in your peer network who work at other companies. Does it sound like you may be able to go after an opportunity through your contacts?If conditions out in the job market seem great, then plan for your next steps- polish up your resume and cover letter, make sure your interview clothes still fit, and get out there! However, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re seeing some warning signs that right now might not be the best time to jump ship, then bide your time and plan accordingly. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget, you can do some subtle and covert planning for your next job while youÃ¢â¬â¢re at your current one so when the iron is hot youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be prepared to strike!I want to make a major job or career change.Perhaps youÃ¢â¬â¢re just not feeling completely happy or fulfilled in your current industry, and something is telling you that perhaps now is the time to make a major change. This could be a good thing- the truth is, job unhappiness is often a major cause of mental and physical distress and could have a wide range of negative effects on our health and well-being.According to a recent Huffington Post blog post by Alexander Kjerulf, founder and Chief Happiness Officer of Woohoo inc, Ã¢â¬Å"Way too many people hate their jobs. Exactly how many is hard to say, but depending on which study you believe, somewhere between 20 percent and 40 percent of empl oyees are miserable at work.Ã¢â¬ Kjerulf goes on to say that hating your job can weaken your immune system, make you gain weight, rob you of sleep, ruin your personal relationships, and even increase your risk of serious illness. Not a good way to ring in the New Year!So, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re eager to make a major job or career changeÃ¢â¬ ¦ you guessed it, make a plan. Consider making a list of pros and cons for taking the plunge. If everything in your life is pointing to making a major change, figure out what new goal makes the most sense for you. Take an inventory of your skills and experience, along with your interests and aspirations, and figure out which careers/industries you best align with. Do you have any friends or family who have jobs that sound potentially intriguing to you? If so, ask them more about it. Do your research- the Internet is a great source of information for researching new companies and careers.Although making a big career change can be a wonderful moment in your life, acting impulsively could really backfire. There are countless stories of people who made quick decisions to leave their current working worlds for new ones, only to discover that they were ill-informed and really had no idea what they were getting into and wound up being just as unhappy- or even unhappier- as they were before. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t become just another unfortunate member of this group. Plan wisely and carefully, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be setting yourself up for a real shot at positive and lasting change.I want to build new job skills.This is a great goal for most of us and can really help put you in a better position to achieve the other resolutions on this list in the future- getting a promotion or a new job, or even changing industries. And even if none of these goals are in your immediate future, acquiring new skills can be a rewarding and fulfilling enterprise on its own and help us feel more empowered and effective in our current positions.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looki ng to acquire new job skills in the new year, consider the following. Do you want to acquire skills that will make you more effective at your current job or a new one? Your answer to this question will help you determine which skills you should look at. Also, are you looking to invest money towards acquiring new skills? If so, there are a wealth of career and adult education/skill-development programs available across the country; a great place to start is researching the offerings at colleges and universities in your area. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely come across a wealth of options, both in class and online- you just need to decide which are right for you.If money is an issue and youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for a more cost-effective approach, there are some great free and low-cost options online. One great resource is Skillshare, an online learning community created, maintained, and curated by veterans and experts in their respective fields who are dedicated to teaching others the skills theyÃ¢ â¬â¢ve acquired.HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the bottom line- many folks who are unhappy with their work lives or who are just eager for a fresh start or new challenge take the new year as an opportunity to make a change, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a great time to do so! Because so many people are focused on career changes at the beginning of a new year, many companies and industries ramp up their hiring during this time- and those among us who are serious and dedicated can take full advantage of this reality. If this sounds like you, perhaps now is a great time to move forward- but do so wisely and plan accordingly. Good luck and Happy New Year!
Friday, November 22, 2019
How Much of My Novel Should I Post Online This is a hard question to answer because it isnt black and white. There are mixed messages on giving away your novel. Ive listened to agents speak about discovering good writers via serial releases of a novel. What they dont clarify when they say it can be done is this: Theyre only interested when the public gets lit up, afire with the material so that the blog explodes with interest and starts trend setting. If you only have twenty people reading your blog, waiting for the next chapter, you havent achieved what an agent seeks. Good means you are gathering several thousand followers because of how remarkably your work teases them to return for more. People dont just come to you because you posted your story somewhere. You have to work the system and coax people to come to you. That means lots of social media, maybe even a newsletter. You have to act as if the book has been published and you are seeking readers to buy. This is always such a long shot unless you have a platform already or youre pretty darn savvy and willing to work relentlessly to snare readers. What a Catch 22, right? You need to be published to sell well, so whats a writer to do if not post the book online to build afollowing? The problem here is that you take a chance. When you approach an agent about this book, and its been marketed online via your website or blog, or even self-published in eBook form, that agent will ask how many people read/bought your book. If you gathered 450 readers and a dozen reviews, you may be telling an agent you cant sell the book OR the book isnt marketable enough. You take a risk here. For every one person that does well using this tactic to make a name for himself, there are a thousand who crashed and burned. I tend to suggest to new novelists to seek a mid-size publisher that is willing to go the long-haul with you (the long tail business approach look it up). Mid-size and smaller presses want authors for a long time, for multiple books, and they work and cooperate with you as you build your platform through branding, social media, deals with Amazon, etc. That is the route Im taking. Youd think Id have a big platform, but my editors didnt have a clue what FundsforWriters was, and treated me like a newbie. So Ive been in the process for the past year of showing them how hard I can market. And remember this. If people already read the book for free, why would they buy it later when its published? Theyre waiting for book two. Id stick to the straight and narrow. Post other writing to build a following, but not the book youre trying to sell.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Do corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports provide shareholders and stakeholders with useful information on corporate soci - Essay Example Emphasizing on the corporate social responsibility has become a core part of the public policies for development of private sectors within the framework of the international cooperation development. It is considered a deliberate choice for an enterprise to give back to the community and to respond the environment crises while maintaining relations with the shareholders and stakeholders based on dialogue and transparency (Godfrey, Merrill & Hansen 2009). A CSR report, therefore, consists of all activities that the company has taken part. This includes the whole of their chain of value and it considers the effects on ecological, economic, and social parameters in dialogue with the shareholders and stakeholders. The report conveys the following information to the public and to the stakeholders: consumer interest, environmental care, air operating practices such as corruption and bribery, involvement to the community and firmÃ¢â¬â¢s governance. A company will therefore, use the report to reach to its consumers, shareholders, and stakeholders. Corporate managers and leaders have taken the initiative to call upon the government, as a stakeholder, to recognize their CSR participation and achievements. The companies can only achieve that by creating a CSR report that communicates to the society on its CSR activities. The government has gone ahead to encourage, support and to enforce Corporate Social Responsibility behavior of firms (Turker 2009). This has therefore resulted to multiple rationales, such as deregulation and competitiveness in companies by including their CSR reports in their annual reports. However, the legal standards and frameworks have been put in place in order to ensure the companies include the appropriate information. This is because some of the stakeholders and shareholders are non-profit agencies which require in knowing the benefit of the company to the community before investing in it. The government also requires knowing how the company res ponds to environmental issues such as pollution and global warming. It is important to note that most stakeholders including investors, community, markets, NGOs and the government need to know the role of a company to the society and their role in ensuring the environment is maintained. For instance, the mentioned groups expect organizations to put efforts in fighting global warming and feeding the poor. It is humble call for a company to do that, but it has a great effect to the consumers and to the investors. Consumers want to be associated with a company that understand their needs and which cares for their future. As well, investor will invest in a company that has responsible management and that which takes part in CSR activities. Background information Since the early years of 1990, an increase in the environmental awareness and development of sustainable economic growth redirected firms into environmental sensitivity. The recent economic events have resulted to a greater emph asis on the Corporate Social Responsibility in redefining the future of the society. Whereas companies and business organizations are responsible of creating wealth for the shareholders and driving companyÃ¢â¬â¢ progress, they are directed and guided by regulations and governments, green consumer pressure and society pressure groups (Henriques & Sadorsky1999). A balance between needs of the society and economic growth attracts
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The corporate social responsibility of Formosa Plastic Corporation - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that in pursuit of environmental protection, Formosa Plastics Corporation adheres to initiatives that are targeted towards improving the environment. For example, the corporation in the areas of energy and water conservation invested about the US $ 0.57 billion from 1999 to 2012, which saw the completion of more than 6,356 improvement projects. This enabled the corporation to save 287,000 tons in terms of daily water usage and decreased carbon-dioxide emissions by about 8.064 million tons yearly. The corporation intends to implement another 772 improvement projects in the future. This will save about another 13,000 tons of projected daily water usage and lower carbon-dioxide emissions yearly emissions by another 1.371 tons. The corporation prevents and proactively controls pollution in all stages of its manufacturing processes. It has established comprehensive garbage classifications and kitchen waste recycling initiative. The corporation h as established Formosa Environmental Technology initiative that recycles kitchen waste into organic fertilizers for growing organic vegetables and fruits. The corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s management understands the fact that there is need to give back to the society. The corporation understands that in the region they operate there is lack of medical and industrial talent, which has resulted in substandard healthcare resources.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Hitler Became Chancellor in January Essay It signified unity and support behind a cause Ã¢â¬â unseen since the beginning of the Great War. No longer were nationalists vying for the implausible return of a Kaiser, but joining behind Hitler. Furthermore Nazi support far exceeded that of the parties on the fragmented Left. Whilst in 1930 the SPD retained their lead on the NSDAP by two million votes, in 1932 the Nazi vote was almost double of the SPDÃ¢â¬â¢s, with 7 million more votes. By leading the most popular party, Hitler had the confidence of almost 14 million people which was an undeniable force. Then again, Hitler had not gained the 50% majority needed to become Chancellor. Democracy did not bring Hitler to power and 63. 6% of Germans had not voted for Hitler. Debatably, it was only a protest vote. The loss of two million votes from the July to the November 1932 elections demonstrates how the popularity of the party was perhaps more a symbolic facade which Hitler took advantage of. Some would argue that it was not the quantity of supporters that brought him power but the importance of individual groups. Having Nazi supporters in crucial interest groups such as industrialists, the army and HindenburgÃ¢â¬â¢s own family was also important for funding and for political sway. Most important of these was popularity in military circles. Essentially the armyÃ¢â¬â¢s acquiescence and partial support for Nazis meant that when the SA surrounded Berlin in January 1933 threatening to seize power, Wilhelmstra? e was left with little choice. There was as many as four times the number of Stormtroopers as Reichswehr, although the army had machine guns and flame throwers. The most pressing fact was that General von Hammerstein had told Hindenburg that many soldiers may refuse to obey an order to crush the SA. Whilst the threat of a violent coup pressurized government, that the army was not loyal arguably made HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment inevitable. Ruth Henig argues that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the strength of its enemies that brought down the Republic as much as the striking absence of its friends. Not quite a Ã¢â¬Å"Republic without RepublicansÃ¢â¬ , but the political naivety of both parties and individuals in failing to cooperate was a considerable factor in Nazi success. Specifically, the SPDÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal as one of the strongholds of democracy: in November 1932 the left combined had 13. 5 million votes, whereas the right had 12 million. By uniting, the Communists and Socialists had potentially the ability to overrule the Nationalists. StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s preference of Hitler over the SPD, who he believed were the real enemy, ensured complete disunity. Arguably a more decisive factor was Von PapenÃ¢â¬â¢s active role. His plan to Ã¢â¬Å"frame inÃ¢â¬ the Nazis to utilize their mass support and then dispense with Hitler was short-sighted and naive. Meeting with Kurt Von Schroder, Papen not only in turn helped solve the Nazi financial debts to ensure the continuation of the party, but presented an opportunity to Hitler which he otherwise would not have been offered. Papen convinced Hindenburg the Nazi support could be harnessed and that its ambitions and extremist policies contained through safety features. The President agreed to only meet with Hitler when the Vice Chancellor, Von Papen, was present. Only two cabinet ministers were included. By offering this, Von Papen made perhaps the most fatal underestimation of the 20th century. He had had the responsibility of being decisive, thorough and unfaltering when Hindenburg could not be and so his weak acceptance of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s demands Ã¢â¬â when he was perhaps not even in a position to demand Ã¢â¬â is surely a cause of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment. Debatably, this arrangement was a production of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s own political skill as opposed to, or as well as, PapenÃ¢â¬â¢s great failure. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunism, vehement desire for power and ability to manipulate people was crucial for his success. Meeting with Von Papen in December 1932, he resolutely demanded the Chancellorship. Whereas Strasser faltered in making botched agreements with Von Schleicher for a lesser position, Hitler held out against odds. Additionally HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s chameleon nature meant that he was successfully demanding with Von Papen, yet very respectful with Hindenburg, bowing down to him publicly. Popularity got Hitler through the door, but HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunism and manipulation brought his triumph. In summary, Nazi popularity gave Hitler the advantage. It offered him access to GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders so that he was able to exploit the scheming nature of Von Papen and ailing of Hindenburg. Nevertheless, Hitler failed to command a majority and thus his appointment of Chancellor was left to the decisions of incapable and self-seeking men. Perhaps Hitler succeeded because in that dire political situation, those in power could not ignore HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s strength. However the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s and PapenÃ¢â¬â¢s inadequacy and underestimation of Hitler in the face of his resounding obstinacy, as well as the threat his Stormtroopers, were the decisive forces.